The Jews of Termini Imerese: The Neofiti

Three of the surnames in the following  baptismal record  of 1548 in Termini Imerese are Jewish: Salamone, d’Amato, and la Laurificia

These new Catholics are known as Neofiti

Photo 506 p. 120v d

On March 14, 1548 the same Father Stefano Spataro baptized the daughter of Vincenzo Salamone. She was named Vincenza. Her godfathers are Mastro Vito d’Amato and Giovanni Simone Bonafede. Her godmother is Domenica la Laurificia. San Nicola Bari Archives, Codex A: p. 120 versus, entry d.

The 15th-Century Jewish Community of Termini Imerese during the years preceding 1492

The Synagogue of Termini-Imerese: La Moschetta

The synagogue which served the Jewish Community of Termini Imerese until late 1492 stood in the area now occupied by the Santa Chiara Monastery whose cloisters are visible in the photograph below.

Cloisters of the San Marco Franciscan Monastery

The Santa Chiara Monastery in Termini Imerese occupies the land upon which once stood La Moschetta, the town synagogue.

After the expulsion of the Jews of Termini (which took two years to accomplish), Pope Alexander VI, (who drew the famous Papal Line of Demarcation) was asked by Padre Giacomo DeLeo to transform the abandoned synagogue in Termini into a church. Known as la Moschetta, i.e the Little Mosque, the synagogue was eventually to be incorporated into the Monastery of Santa Chiara and its adjoining Church of San Marco. The remains of the marble slabs comprising the floor of la Moschetta were discovered during the 1800s when the cloisters in the Santa Chiara Monastery were being excavated.

Cloisters of Santa Chiara

Facade of the Monastery of Santa Chiara: remnants of the synagogue known as La Moschetta were uncovered when the cloisters were excavated during the 1800s.

With a privilege from the Spanish Viceroy of Sicily, Don Fernandino De Accugna, and  dated April 28, 1492,  the authorization was given to construct a new synagogue within the city of Termini behind the Church of San Antonio da Padua. But it was never built because, just a few months after permission was granted, the Expulsion Decree from King Ferdinand dashed all plans.

However, during work to re-contour the land around the church, which was carried out during the early years of the 20th Century, a Jewish cemetery was uncovered in the plaza immediately across from the Church of San Antonio da Padua.

A Brief History of the Jews of Sicily

Jews first came to the island of Sicily from the Levant when the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea were part of the Roman Empire.  During that time Greek Orthodox Christianity prevailed. In time the island passed to the Ostrogoths, Arian Christians who were very tolerant of the Jews. After the Byzantine reconquest of Sicily in 552, conditions worsened dramatically for the Jews of Sicily. Under Byzantine rule few Jews continued to live in Sicily because of official persecution. Sometime before 606 the bishop of Palermo actually ordered the synagogue there to be converted into a church. The final straw  came in 722 with an edict issued by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo III the Isaurian ordering the baptism by force of all Jews residing in the Byzantine Empire, which included Sicily.

After the Muslim conquest of Sicily in 831-902, Jews settled once again on the island, this time in considerable numbers. In 972, the Arab merchant Ibn Hawqal mentioned a Jewish Quarter in Palermo, and by 1170, Benjamin of Tudela reported 1500 Jewish households in Palermo and 200 in Messina. In 1149, King Roger II forcibly brought the Jewish brocade, damask, and silk weavers of Thebes (in the Eastern Roman Empire) to Sicily with the objective of establishing a silk industry on the island kingdom.

As the records kept by notaries demonstrate, during the 1400s the situation of Jews of Termini was quite different from the majority of their brethren who lived in the vast Kingdom of Poland. A look at the situation in that Eastern European land finds the Jews there involved  the following multifaceted enterprises:

Urban Jewish Families in the Kingdom of Poland

Working as the financial agents of the Kings of Poland-Lithuania

Retail trade

Handicrafts

Collecting tolls, i.e. transit and customs duties

Money Lending

Holding land

Jewish Families on the Great Country Estates of the Polish Nobility

Leasing and mortgaging of estates belonging to the Crown and Szlachta (nobility)

Liquor production and trade (managed taverns and inns on the great estates of the nobility)

Collecting excise taxes on alcoholic drinks

Exporting  farm production into the Ottoman Empire and Western Europe

Salt mining

Timbering

Production and manufacture of essential goods

Farming (limited)

In both Poland and in Sicily, the nobility preferred to live in the cities rather than out on their agricultural estates in the countryside. To this purpose, in Poland the vast estates of the Magnates (Upper Szlachta) were leased from them almost exclusively by Jewish families whose head was known by the term Schenker (Arendar). Concurrently,  in Sicily the operations of the great estates of the Barons were overseen by managers known as Gabelloti, and, as far as is known, they were Catholic Sicilians.

As for urban Jewish families in Poland, these were forever locked in combat business-wise with the German Burghers whose forbears actually founded the cities of Poland. The source of the conflict had to do with fact that the Jewish merchants had an advantage over the Burghers: because of their international connections, Jewish merchants could make available the necessary commodities needed by town folk for considerably less than what was being charged by the Burghers.

In 15th-century Termini Imerese there was no division at all among its merchants: as the notarial records show, Jews and Catholic Sicilians even went in on business ventures together. And several Jews in Termini had considerable real-estate holdings both in town and in the surrounding countryside. Before it was demolished in 1492, the synagogue of the Jewish Community of Termini Imerese stood in the area now occupied by the San Dighiera Monastery.

In 1492, as part of an attempt to maintain Catholic orthodoxy and purify their kingdom of Moorish influence, the Iberian monarchs Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile ordered the forced expulsion or conversion of all Jews in their lands, which included Sicily, on pain of death. In Sicily, the date of the expulsion was extended from September 18, 1492 to January 12, 1493, in order to allow the extortion of opportunist tax levies. One can only imagine the chaos suffered by Termini with the loss of so many Jews who were integral to the maintenance of services and distribution of necessary commodities.

Witnesses recounted the sight of the Jews of Palermo waving from the departing ships to their former neighbors as they were borne away. Many Sicilian Jews fled to neighboring Calabria where the Spanish Inquisition caught up with them again fifty years later. Not all of the Sicilian Jews departed. A considerable number of Sicily’s Jews converted to Catholicism and remained on the island. In Sicily, such converts are referred to as Neofiti (Neophytes) or, as they were known in Portugal when a similar situation presented itself to the Jewish people there, New Catholics.

As fate would have it, the Jews who had left Sicily for the Kingdom of Naples where King Ferrante held no animus against them, were, upon the timely death of this friendly monarch, forced to convert to Catholicism by the French. The converted Jews who survived the ensuing plague in the Kingdom of Naples, returned to Sicily.

Prominent members of the Jewish Community of Termini Imerese during the 15th Century include the following:

Note that the letter ‘x’ in Sicilian is pronounced ‘sh’. Therefore Muxa (Moses) is almost pronounced in the same manner as the Yiddish term for Moses:  Moyshe.

1st Half of the 15th Century:

  • Benedetto Xamar: Cantor 1409-1448
  • Farmono Cosintino, Presbitero 1411-1413
  • Xinguel Maltensi, Presbitero 1411-1414, died c. 1422
  • Angilono Maltense, Treasurer and Protonotary with expertise in writing in Hebrew 1419-1421
  • Gauyucio de Binna: Protonotary 1409-1447
  • Brachono de Bracha: Protonotary 1409-1422
  • Muxano de Messana: Protonotary 1409-1437
  • Master Sabuti Mactuti: Protonotary (and surgeon) 1432
  • Iosep Binna: Collector of the Gisia 1441-1448

2nd Half of the 15th Century:

  • Braxono Binna: Protonotary 1463-1480
  • Iosep de Simuni: Protonotary 1468-1482
  • Xibite Susi: Protonotary 1464-1483
  • Muxa Susi: Protonotary 1469-1489
  • Braxa Susi: Protonotary 1482-1488
  • Iacob Susi: Maggiorente 1482
  • Iosep Suyanni: Protonotary and tax collector for the Jewish Community 1474
  • Mathathia, Iacusi: Notary with expertise in Talmudic Law 1470
  • Bracha Minzi: owned a Sefer Torah 1470-1480
  • Nicolo` de Vechu; ritual slaughterer at his abattoir 1482
  • Bulxayra Abate, Attorney of the Jewish Community of Termini: dismissed for incompetence in 1488

The Gisia, collected by Iosep Binna during the 1st half of the 15th Century, was a toleration/protection tax (extortion) levied on the Jews of Termini Imerese in order that they could freely practice their religion in a city which was predominately Catholic and theoretically hostile to the Jews, especially during Easter Week. It was paid directly to the Crown of Aragon which ruled the Kingdom of Sicily. In fact, in some European lands, the ruling powers considered the Jews living there to be the actual property of the king! The Gisia [Arabic: djizia] originated during the Muslim Era which preceded the establishment of Roman Catholicism as the principal religion of Sicily, in which case it was paid by Jews and Greek Orthodox Christians alike to the Muslim rulers of the kingdom.

Catholicism was first established as the state religion of the Kingdom of Sicily during the 1200s when the island was ruled by the House of Hohenstaufen. Greek Orthodox Christians were exempt from paying the Gisia to the Catholic emperor, but the Jews were not. In 1224 AD, Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich II (whose mother, Constance, daughter of Roger II, was Queen of Sicily), responding to religious uprisings in Sicily, expelled all Muslims from the island, transferring many to  the town of Lucera on the Italian Peninsula over the next two decades. According to some estimates, Frederick II deported around twenty-five thousand Muslims to Lucera in the 1220s to 1240s; these deportees made up only one-tenth of the quarter of a million Muslims subjected to Roman Catholic rule when the Normans seized power in 1091.

Frederick II and Al-Kamil_Muhammad_al-Malik

Frederick II Hohenstaufen began to expel the Muslims of Sicily from the island kingdom in 1224. He is pictured here with Sultan Al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik, ruler of North Africa. Some 268 years later, the Jews of Sicily would meet a similar fate under Ferdinand of Aragon.

Jewish Cemeteries in Termini Imerese

Jewish laws regarding the dead are very specific: unlike Catholics, hundreds of whom were interred under churches in the city, Jews had to be buried away from the inhabitants of any settlement, preferably outside the city walls.

It is known that the late 14th-century church of Santa Caterina del Egitto, dedicated to one of the patron saints of slaves, replaced an earlier edifice which had been built over an ancient Jewish cemetery. Clearly, this area of Termini Imerese where Santa Caterina stands was, at one time, at a distance from the population center:

Church of S. Caterina

The church of Santa Caterina del Egitto (late 1300′s): Dedicated to a patron saint of female slaves, this late 14th-century church replaced an earlier edifice dedicated to Saint Catherine which had been built over a Jewish Cemetery.

In 1994, Michela Rossi, inserted a map of Termini into her dissertation on the history of the Jews of Sicily, which indicates that there were once two additional Jewish cemeteries in Termini: one to the north of the town outside the Palermo Gate and the other to the south and outside the town wall near the Caccamo Gate in what became the Piazza San Antonio da Padua. The latter cemetery was discovered during the course of work on the piazza during the early years of the 20th Century.

tn_piazza-s-antonio-02

The Jewish cemetery discovered in the Piazza di San Antonio da Padua. Stone slabs cover the graves.

SURNAMES TAKEN BY SICILIAN JEWS

During the 1400s,  as notarial documents clearly demonstrate, the Jews of Termini had already taken surnames. Because Jews in Europe were traditionally taxed by community, it was originally unnecessary to have the names of specific individuals for the records. But as soon as a head tax was demanded of the Jews, surnames had to be worked out. For example, a man named Brachono ben Yitzakh (Baruch son of Isaac) might take the surname  Ysac or Sacco (Isaac) which now would be applied to all of his children. Another unrelated Brachono ben Yitzakh in Termini might use his profession as the surname for his family to differentiate his  family from that of Brachono Sacco. Were he an artisan in iron (a blacksmith), surnames such as DiFerro or LuFerraro  (both referring to iron) would be  strong possibilities: he now could become Brachono LuFerraro, and if so, all of his children would take the identical surname.

In the years after 1492 when these men might have made the decision to remain in Sicily and, therefore be required to convert to Catholicism, their first names, Brachono (Baruch=Blessed) could easily be changed to the Sicilian equivalent, Benedetto, when taking the sacrament of Baptism: one Brachono ben Yitzakh would become Benedetto Sacco and the other, Benedetto LuFerraro. Of course, this is only a playbook version of how given-name changes could have taken place during conversion to Catholicism; clearly it was a more complex procedure because surnames were often changed, too.


Fernando_e_Isabel

In the year 1492, Ferdinand of Aragon expelled the Jews of Sicily from his island kingdom. Here is pictured here with his wife, Isabella of Castile and Léon. In the same year, the Moors of Iberia were defeated and forced off of the peninsula, and Christopher Columbus was sponsored by both Ferdinand and Isabella to chart a western course around the globe in an effort to reach what is now Indonesia, the center of the spice trade. As part of their wedding agreement, Ferdinand presented Isabella with a section of eastern Sicily centered around Paternò known as the Camera Reginale.

Jewish Surnames which Remained Intact in Termini Imerese and Environs after the Spanish Crown Required the Jews of Sicily to Convert to Catholicism

Thanks to the untiring efforts of Shlomo Simonsohn, whose monumental work dealing with the notarial documents of Sicily is now in print, it is finally possible to learn which Jewish family names in Termini Imerese and it environs remained intact after the required conversion of family members to Catholicism during the years following the extraordinary events of 1492. These surnames are presented here in both the modern spelling, and in the rather flexible 16th-century spellings found in Codex A. They were derived by comparing the family names found in the notarial documents created by the scribes working in 15th-Century Termini Imerese, with the family names in the 1542-48 Baptismal Records of Termini Imerese [Codex A] which are preserved in the San Nicola Bari Archives.

  • L’Abbate ::  labati / labatj / labbatj /abatj /abbatj / abattj
  • DiBono :: dj bonu / d¯ bono / de bono
  • LuBarbuto :: lu barbutu
  • Calabrese :: calabriſi
  • Catalano :: cattalano / catulano
  • Catanese :: catanjſi / catanjsj
  • Cosentino :: cuſintjno / coſintjno
  • DiFranco :: dj francu / di fra~cu / di fra¯co
  • DiGeraci :: dj girachj
  • Greco :: grecu / gregu / grego
  • Laurifice :: laurjfichi [Aurifex]
  • DiMessina :: dj mjsſina
  • DiPolizzi :: dj poljzi / di pulizi
  • LoPresti :: lu p¯ſtj / lu preſtj / lo p~ſtj / lo prestj
  • Romano :: rumano / romanu
  • DiRubino :: dj rubinu
  • Russo :: rusſu / ruzſu / ruſſo
  • Rustico :: ruſtjco
  • Salamone :: salamunj
  • Sansone :: ſanzunj / sanſunj
  • DiSimone :: dj ſimunj
  • Sineni :: ſinenj [Xineni]
  • Spagnolo :: ſpangnolu
  • LuSpeciale :: lu spicialj / specialj / lu ſpizialj / lu ſpitjalj
  • DiTermini :: di terminj
  • DiTripi :: dj tri / dj tripi / di tripi
  • Vecchio :: vechu / vechjo / vecio
  • DiVita :: dj vita /de vita

The World of the Jews living in 15th-Century Termini Imerese

IN THE ENVIRONS OF TERMINI

PUBLIC  or TOWN SQUARE OF TERMINI

House: Margarita & Vinchi Lupo (Catholics) 1413

House (free-standing): Benedetto Xamar (the Cantor)

House: Master Symone de Pulcelli (Catholic)

House (free-Standing) owned by Xibite Maltense 1439

House: David Minzi 1414

Shop: Angelono Maltense 1422

Shop: Muxa de Panicello 1437-1447

Shop: Xibite Maltense 1437

Shop: Xanono Bonna 1438

Shop: Master Lazero Sacerdoto 1470

Shop: Mardoc de Messana 1470

Shop: Iacu Susi 1475

Shop: Gauyu de Ragsa and Muxa de Girgenti 1463

Shop: Xanono de Rindellario 1441

Shop: Xanono de Binna 1441

Shop: Iacob de Tudisco 1441

PIAZZA OF TERMINI

Shop: Iosep Aurifex

Shop: Giovanni de Rachyla 1434 (presumably Catholic)

Shop: Sadono de lu Liali , shoemaker 1434: two shops

Shop: Muxa Binna

2 Shops: Xibite Maltense

Shop: Brachono de Bracha 1420

Shop: Sabuto Sansono  1430

House: Xibite Maltense 1430

House: Giovanni de Bordanario (Catholic) 1430

Property: Busac Ysac 1433

Shop: Iacu Susi 1482

Shop: Mardoc de Messana 1482

Palermo Gate_Termini Imerese

Outside the Palermo Gate: Termini Imerese. The Giudecca was inside the gate just to the left.

Palermo Gate inside the walls

Palermo Gate: Inside the walls. The Giudecca was on the right .

Jewish Neighborshoods of 15th-Century Termini

Jewish Neighborhoods of 15th-Century Termini

Jewish Neighborhoods 15th Century Termini

Jewish Neighborhoods of 15th Century Termini

OLD QUARTER OF TERMINI (near the Palermo Gate) : The Iudecca

The term La Giudecca was used in Southern Italy and in Sicily to identify any urban district (or a portion of a village) where Jewish communities dwelt and had their synagogues and businesses.

Unlike the compulsory ghettos of Northern Italy and elsewhere, in Southern Italian hamlets and cities, Jewish families and their members voluntarily chose to live in certain areas, but were free to travel and even contribute together with their Christian neighbors to the success of the commercial, cultural, and artistic progress of the region. The majority of Giudecci included many craftsmen, doctors and tradesmen. Very few Sicilian Giudecci were unhealthy or in a state of decay.

House: Benedetto Xamar 1413 (rental?)

House: Muxano de Messana 1419 next to Sabuto de Sansono

House (free-standing): Nicolo` de Cathanato (Catholic)

House: Sabbatino de Girachio  1412

House: Filippo de Guarino (Catholic) 1412

House: Xinguel Maltense

House: Rosa de Mayurana

House: Giovanni de Cappittula (Catholic)

House: Sabbatino de Girachio

2 Houses: Xibite Maltense

House: Master Sabuto Sansuni

House (free-standing): Iosep Aurifex 1420

House: Challufo de Mayurana 1422

House: Xinguel Maltense 1422

2 Houses: David Minzi 1430

House (free standing): Gauyucio de Binna  1430

2 Houses (rented out) landlord: Gauyucio de Binna

House (rented) landlord: Xibite Maltense

House: Nixim Binna 1438

House (free standing) Xibite Maltense 1438

House: Iosep Binna 1438

Hospital of S. Michael 1421

House (free standing) rented by Stera Susi 1488

House (free standing) owned by Salamon Formica 1488

House (free standing) owned by Braxono Rabibin 1488

House: Musutu Minzi 1441-1442

CHALTIGEGNE (Celtigene) QUARTER by the wall of the Castle / by the town walls and Porte False

House: rented by Benedetto Amar 1409-1412

House: Simone de Pulcelli (Catholic)

House: Nixim Barbuto

House: Xibite Maltense 1425

2 Houses: Vita Sacerdoto 1419 owned by the Jewish Community of Termini

House: Ysdrael Sacerdoto 1425 owned by the Jewish Community of Termini

House: Mardoc de Messana 1442

PORTE FALSE QUARTER

House (free standing): Gauyucio de Binna and Vita de Binna

MADONNA DIANA QUARTER

There was a communal water fountain here. Diana (Artemus) is a Greek goddess whose attributes were given over to the Virgin Mary during the developmental years of Christianity in Greece.

A parcel of land here and the road passing through it owned by Master Lazaro Sacerdoto 1449-1489

SANTA CATERINA QUARTER (Contrada)

Shop: owned by Muxa Susi and rented out 1479 / also mention of his house in the ‘Jewish Quarter’ in 1462

SANTA MARIA DE LA’NUNCIATA [L’ANNUNZIATA QUARTER]

House [free-standing ]next to the church, Santa Maria Annunziata, rented by David Minzi 1484

PLANO DE LI BARLACHI

Several Houses rented by Mussuto de Guglucio 1485

THE CASSARO

Shoemaker’s Shop 1426

Free-standing house: rented by Tuta Minexe owned by the Synagogue of Palermo 1485

Free-standing House: owned by Iacob Binna 1485

THE MARCHE

House: Angilono de Musetto 1438-39

FEUD OF BRUCATO

A garden owned by Musuto Minzi  1439

Sugar plantation owned by Pietro and Giovanni de Rigio (Catholics) 1471

[CONTRADA = DISTRICT]

Contrada Fiume : Brachono de Bracha owned land here 1409-1422.

Contrada Fiume: Benedetto Xamar managed a small farm here 1409-1448.

Contrada Flumen: Muxani de Messana  owned land here: 1418

Contrada Garnassi: vineyard owned by Xibite Maltense 1440

Contrada Incapu: a vineyard owned by Xibite Maltense 1440-1444; vinyard owned bu Iacu Susi

Contrada Germilline: a vinyard owned by Mardoc de Messana 1445

Contrada Omnibeni: vineyard owned by Thomeo de Guzardo 1480

Contrada Madonna Diana: land owned by Master Lazaro Sacerdoto (a vineyard here) 1484

Contrada Xandili Cusani 1479

Contrada del la Gructa de Iancaruglu 1482

Contrada de la Fontana (an orchard here) owned by Xanono Rindellaru 1482

Contrada Plani de Gallo : a vineyard owned by Xibite Maltense 1443

Contrada S. Lucia: a vineyard owned by Xibite Maltense 1444

Contrada S. Giovanni de Cursello (a vineyard here) 1484

Contrada S. Caterina 1479

Bracato Feudal Estate: sugar plantation 1471

De li Faguacocti, a Feudal Estate in Prizzi owned by Musutu Minzi (a Jew) 1438-1468; he pastured a heard of his cows there.

Randazzo (at the base of Mt. Etna) a wheat farm here owned by Muxa Taguil 1420

Feud de lu Gurgu [in Caccamo] farm owned by Xibite Susi 1463-1465

La Cachite: sugar plantation

Plano de li Barlaxi (next to the town square) 1484

UP THE COAST TOWARDS CEFALU`

Castle of Roccella 1438 (now: Campofelice di Roccella)

Shop in Nicosia: Aron Chassuni (a Jew) 1463. Nicosia in inland from Cefalu`

IN CACCAMO

Shop: Iosep de Simuni managed a shop here.

OFFICIALS

KINGS SICILY IN IBERIA

1355-1377             Frederick III (1342-1377)

1377-1392             Maria of Aragon (1367-1402)

1392-1409            Martin I (1374-1409)

1409-1410            Martin II (1356-1410)

1410-1412             Queen Bianca, Vicar of Sicily (wife of Martin I )

1412-1416             Ferdinand I of Castile

1416-1458            Alphonse V of Aragon (1396-1458)

The mission of Master Sabutu Mactuti (a Jew) 1432

1458-1479             John II of Aragon

1479-1516             Ferdinand II  ‘The Catholic’ (1452-1516)

1516-1556             Carlo II (1500-1558) aka Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

IN PALERMO

Royal Court

Royal Treasurer: Antonio Sin 1444-1476. Musutu Minzi (a Jew) acted on his behalf in Termini’s harbor. 1449 In 1475 Mardoc de Messana (a Jew) acted on Antonio’s behalf.

Royal Algozirio: Francesco Martines de Narbaes 1464

Lieutenant of the Royal Treasurer: Antonio de Castagneda 1444

Protonotary of Sicily: Leonardo de Bartholomeo 1448

Pretor of Palermo: Antonio de master Antonio 1463

Master Portulano of Sicily

Lieutenant of the Master Portulano of Sicily: Antonio de Cacchato 1437

Vice Portulano: Ruggero de Salamone 1419

Tax Collector appointed by the Viceroy: Francesco Morano 1481

IN CALABRIA, KINGDOM OF NAPLES

Lieutenant to the Viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples: Consalvo Dixar 1427; Era of Queen Joan II of Naples (r. 1414-1435)

IN TERMINI

Termini’s Ambassador: Giovanni de Salamone 1464

Vice Portulano: Salvatore Falcono 1445; Giovanni Sans 1476

Lieutenant of the Vice Portulano: Giovanni de Solito 1445; Arnau Sans 1449

Castellan’s Court (Court of the Lord of the Castle in Termini. The Jews of Termini were judged here). Castellan of Termini: Paolo Gallo 1447; Chanchio de La Gunella 1448; Tristayno Sin 1479-1481 / Vicecastellan Antonio la Gunella 1481; judge: Antonio de Michele 1480

Judge of the Castellan: Nicolo` Pixi 1472

Judge of the Jews of Termini Imerese at the Curia Iudeorum: Nicolo` Pixi 1476

Captain of Termini: Paolo Gallo (Gallu) 1448; Giovanni de Solito 1482;  Leonardo Bonafide 1483; Giovanni Sans 1484-1485

Judge of the Captain of Termini Imerese: Pietro de Ugo (a notary) 1485

Judge of the Captain’s Court : Antonio de Michele 1480; Nicolo` de Bruno 1484

(Civil) Court of the Giurati

Giurati 1445; Pietro de lu Parello and Giuliano de Bonafide

Giuriati 1447: Arnao Sans and Antonio Ricio

Giuriati 1462: Antonio de Guzino, Donato de Salamone, Ferdinando de Gravina

Giuriati 1464, 1467: Giovanni de Solito, Nicolo` de Salamone

Giuriati 1466: Donato de Salamone, Nicolo` de Pintauro, Gabriel de Bonafide, and Ferrando de Gravina

Giuriati 1484: Giovanni de Markisio

Giuriati 1485: Giovanni de Salamone

Giurati 1489: Friderico de Abbatellis

Baliff of Termini: Giovanni Cito 1447

Lord of Termini: Antonio Melchoir de Robelles

Governor of Termini: Antonio Olzina, a knight 1439 (by 1440 he was out of office).

Royal Secreto of Termini: Giovanni Olzina 1438-1440 / Francesco de Cuptunario 1445 / Nicolo` de Pintauro 1471

Luogotenente (Lieutenant) and Procurator of the Secreto of Termini and Procurator of the Governor of Termini, Antonio Olzina: Brachono Taguil (a Jew)

Acting for the Crown re the export tax on barley & wheat in Termini’s harbor: Musutu Minzi (a Jew) 1445

Acting for the Royal Curia re the wheat owed to the Crown: Musutu Minzi (a Jew) 1446

Acting for the Royal Treasurer re money owed to the Crown: Musutu Minzi (a Jew) 1447

Farmers of the duty revenues: Antonio de Salamone & Giovanni de Valencia 1445

Nicolo` Pixi, a notary: Judge of the Castellan 1472 and Judge of the Jews of Termini Imerese at the Curia Iudeorum 1476

Pietro de Ugone: Judge of the Jews of Termini Imerese at the Curia Iudeorum 1476

Protho(notary) of Termini: Master Lazero Sacerdoto 1459

Procuratore Mundualdo: Iosep Sivuni 1484

IN NEARBY TOWNS

Secreto of Caccamo: Filippo de Chirafiso 1438-40; Antonio de Bisconti 1466

Captain’s Court in Caccamo

Governor and Vicar General of Modica and Caccamo: Arnaldo Sebastida 1463

Raysio of Cefalu`: Iannello de Marturana 1439

Judge of the Civil Court in Ciminna: Nicolo` Xayeti 1472

Vassal of the Count of Modica (in Caccamo): Muxa Alluxi 1485

TITLED INDIVIDUALS

Count Giovanni I Ventimiglia (1382–1475), eighth count of Geraci; Praetor of Palermo: 1416 and 1417, Grande Ammiraglio del Regno (Grand Admiral of the Kingdom), Viceré di Sicilia, (Viceroy of Sicily), 1430–1432, 1438.

Count Enrico Russo 1431

Count Riccardo Filingeri of San Marco 1468

Baron of Militello Ruggero de Salamone [of Polizzi]. Had wheat fields on his estate 1438-1439

Fra Andrea de Termis, Prior of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Burgitabus 1409-1448

Privileged Person of Polizzi: Gauyo Sikiri (a Jew) 1480

Friar Valenti de Montemaiore

Bishop of Cefalu`: Antonio Ponticorona

Fra Michele de Xacca, a Franciscan 1447

Antonio de Burrachato, archdeacon of Cefalu` 1448

Padre Iacobo Lupo one of the confraters of the brotherhood at Santa Maria della Misericordia 1449

Padre Francesco de Solito. Cathedral Church of Termini (Cathedral of San Giacomo?) 1480

Cleric Giovanni Fathoniri 1463

Count Giovanni Bernardo de Cabrea , the Count of Modica 1463

Padre Calogero de Serio 1482

Padre Francesco de Solito 1480

Count of Modica (in Caccano) 1485

Cleric Thomas de Giovanni 1464

Padre Nicolo` de Castilluzu 1471

Padre Nicolo` Brille 1472

Padre Thomeo de Santariano 1480

Padre Thomeo de Satariano 1483

Padre Niccolo` de Castelli 1480

Padre Antonio de Consulo 1488

WAR

Calabria: November 1459

JEWISH TAX FARMERS

Raffael Susi 1448

Iosep Susi: saddle tax 1471

Iacu Susi 1466, 1468, 1477: salzami tax: oil, candles, sardines, tuna.

Iosep de Simuni: oil tax 1468

Master Lazaro Sacerdoto: bread tax 1463,  1464, 1468, 1470

Tax Farming is a technique of financial management, namely the process of commuting (its assignment by legal contract to a third party) a future uncertain revenue stream into fixed and certain periodic rents, in consideration for which commutation a discount in value received is suffered. It is most commonly used in the field of public finance where the state wishes to gain some certainty about its future taxation revenue for the purposes of medium-term budgeting of expenditure.

The tax collection process requires considerable expenditure on administration and the yield is uncertain both as to amount and timing, as taxpayers delay or default on their assessed obligations, often the result of unforeseen external forces such as bad weather affecting harvests.

Governments (the lessors) have thus frequently over history resorted to the services of an entrepreneurial financier (the tenant) to whom they lease or assign the right to collect and retain the whole of the tax revenue due to the state in return for his payment into the Treasury of fixed sums (rent) in exchange.

SLAVES

Alya: a male Moorish slave owned by Brachono Taguil 1437-1440

Giovanni: a male Moorish slave,  who was baptized a Catholic, sold by Muxa Audile, a middleman,  who dealt in slaves 1465

Giovanni must have been the son of a slave, because from the time of King Frederick III (1310) the children of all slaves, no matter what the religion of the parents, had to be baptized Catholic. The penalty for breaking this rule was that the infant was to be immediately set free.

The first prohibition of Jews owning Christian slaves was made by Constantine I in the 4th century. Pope Gregory the Great (pope 590-604), objected to Jews owning Christian slaves, due to concerns about conversion to Judaism and the Talmud’s requirement to circumcise slaves.  And it was part of St. Benedict’s rule that Christian slaves were not to serve Jews. So, in reality, Muxa Audile could have been fined for owning a Catholic slave.

Ali: a Moorish slave owned by Sadia de Palermo of Agrigento (Pietro de Agostino, a Catholic, was the seller) 1468

Sait: white slave owned by Brachono Taguil 1436

Axenora: female slave owned by Iosep Maltense 1438

Barca: a Black female slave owned by Iosep Abenazara 1438

Xasen Mauro: male slave owned by Salamon Formica 1485

Ximisa, an olive-skinned girl owned by Iosep Inbonet of Palermo. Sold by Iacu Susi 1484

Ximisa: female slave owned concurrently by Iacob Susi & Iosep Inbonet 1445-1485

Saytalla: Black Slave owned by Iaco Susi (bought from Bonaiuto Chetubi of Geraci) 1462

Unnamed Black female owned by Master Elimelec Sacerdoto which he sold to Atardo Spatalu of Noto in 1449 for 1.6.0 onze

Unnamed slave owned by Giovanni de Cleri (Catholic) 1463

Unnamed slave owned by Giovanni de Santino 1480

Unnamed slave owned by Bracha Minzil, then Iosep Sivini 1479-1480

Unnamed slave owned by Assisa Susi 1485

Unnamed Black slave: Rafael Russu  a broker of Nicosia sold a black slave to Bando de Anna 1480

PROSTITUTES

Gracia de Musarra 1471

MANUFACTORIES primarily owned by Jewish Men

IN TERMINI

Sugar Business owned by Giovanni de Diana (Catholic)

Brucato Sugary Refinery 1459-1475

San Nicola Sugar Refinery 1467, 1470 owned by Raymondo Crispo (a Catholic)

Sugar cane cultivation had its origins in Southwest Asia. From there it was carried to Persia and then to the eastern Mediterranean by Arab conquerors in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Shortly after sugar cane’s introduction to the Mediterranean, it was being grown on estates similar to the later plantations of the Americas. By the fourteenth century Cyprus became a major producer using the labour of Syrian and Arab slaves. Eventually sugar made its way to Sicily where a familiar pattern of enslaved or coerced labour, relatively large land units, and well-developed long-range commerce was established. The Portuguese and the Spanish both looked to Sicily as a model to be followed in their own colonies in the Atlantic, and in 1420 Prince Henry sent to Sicily for cane plantings and experienced sugar technicians.

An innovation in sugar production, the roller mill, was introduced to the Mediterranean (perhaps by the Sicilians) and the Atlantic Islands in the fifteenth century. The roller mill reduced the time and labour needed to prepare the sugar cane, thereby increasing the mill’s capacity. It was this technology, combined with the system of production developed in the Mediterranean, which was transplanted and expanded to the Atlantic Islands.

Mill on a Stream owned by Filippo Lumbardo & Pericono de Castellnovo (Catholics) 1438, but dating from c. 1377

Abbatoir (Slaughterhouse) owned by Francesco de Salamone (Catholic?)

Abbatoir (Slaughterhouse) owned by Nicolo`de Vechu ritual slaughterer  1482

Abbatoir (Slaughterhouse) of Termini 1480

Tannery (near the water conduit; i.e probably the Cornelius Aqueduct) owned by Muxa de Panichello.He also owned a shoe shop.

Tannery owned by Bandi de Anna (Catholic);  leased by Iacop de Seragusa and Muxa lu Liali 1479

The Tuna Plant of Termini: owner Nicolo` de Pintauro (Catholic) 1459

Tuna Plant: owned by Iacu Susi 1462

Tuna Plant: owned by Guayucio de Binna

Tuna Plant: part-owner Muxa de Panichello

Tuna Plant owned by Muxa Minzi 1472-1488

Tuna plants in Termini and Cefalu`: part-owner Brachono Taguil: 1437-1440

Tuna Processing Plant owned by Master Lazaro Sacerdoto 1449-1489

Tuna Plant down the hill,  just west of Termini at Trabia. Owned by Leonardo de Bartholomeo (Catholic) 1448

La Galia Sicca owned by Xibite Minzi 1472-1488; by 1449 owned by Paolo Gallo (Catholic) and partly by Muxa de Panichello.

Lu Xilandru, a Tuna Plant: part-owner Xibite Maltense;  part Muxa de Panichello; foreman (fishing rights): Musuto Xamar 1449

Sugar Refinery at San Nicola owned by Raynaldo Crispo (Catholic) 1484

IN NEARBY TOWNS

2 Wine Presses and the land surrounding them in Caccamo:  owned by Iacu Susi of Termini 1464.

Sugar Refinery in Palermo belonging to Count Giliberto Centigles

Sugar Refinery in Trabia

Tuna Plant in Trabia 1465

WAREHOUSES ON THE SHORE OF TERMINI primarily owned by Jewish Men

From the Middle Ages through the beginning of the 19th century, Termini served as a major center for the collection and shipping of grain and other foodstuffs stored and subjected to duty in a special government warehouse-complex known as the Caricatore Regio (Royal Shipper). The presence of the Caricatore improved the fortunes of the city, turning it into one of the major ports of Sicily and strengthening its commercial relationships with the maritime republics of Genoa, Pisa, and Venice as well as the major Mediterranean ports of Marseille and Barcelona and, during the 16th century, those of the Atlantic.

Wheat Warehouse: Bracholo Taguil, owner

Warehouse: Francesco de Ceptonario, owner (Catholic)

Wheat & Barley Warehouse: Merdoch de Messana, owner 1463-1475

Warehouse: Xibite Maltense, owner mentioned 1437-1445

Warehouse: Musutu Minzi, owner stored barley; located on the shore of Termini 1445

Storehouse (for salt): Manuel Spagnolo 1431-1439

Warehouse: Xibite Susi, owner 1464-1483

Muxa Susi / Iacu Susi, owners of warehouse 1463-1485

Wheat Warehouse: owned by Brachono Taguil; supplied in hardtack: 1437-1440

Warehouse owned by Master Lazaro Sacerdoto 1479

Warehouse owned by Iosep Sivuni 1480

Warehouse: Braxono Rabibin 1489

Warehouse (at the Termini anchorage): Siminto de Policio 1489

CHURCHES

San Nicola: Archpriest: Leonardo de Ruzillono 1430: this is around the time the church was rededicated from Santa Maria ‘la Nova’ to San Nicola Bari, patron saint of sailors.

Santissima Maria della Miseracordia 1449

San Francesco di Paola 1448-1449. The loft above the church was (rented / owned) by Xibite Maltense in 1448.

Cathedral Church of Termini (Cathedral of San Giacomo?) 1480: Padre Francesco de Solito here in 1470-1480

Santa Maria de La Nunciata [l’Annunciata] 1484

SYNAGOGUES

Polizzi 1480

Termini Imerese

INNS

Owned by Master Lazaro Sacerdoto 1459

Logia on the shore of Termini owned by Iacu Susi 1462

TAVERNS

In Old Quarter; building owned by Iosep Binna

Location in Termini unknown; operated by Muxa de Panicello

CASTELLO of TERMINI

Mentioned in 1445

SHIPS Owned by Jews

Santo Cristofaro: three owners including Guayucio de Binna and Xibite Maltense

San Bartolomeo (three owners)

Boat owned by David Minzi in use between Termini & Palermo 1475

Several ships owned by Musutu Minzi 1438-1468

Giovanni de la Molina was the captain of one of them 1447

At Anchor in Termini (owned by Catholics):

Ship owned by Nicolo` de lu Parrino 1437

Ships owned by Bernardo de Miro 1438

Galley owned by Pietro de Albustro 1437

Ship of Huio Gaddo of Livorno 1445

Ship of Peri Barbarussa (captain) 1445

Boat owned by Antonio de Bova 1447

Boat owned by Antonio de Fractina 1447

Boat owned by Thomeo de Franco 1447

Boat owned by Vincencio de Rachila  1447

Boat owned by Girardo Ricio

leased by Musutu Minzi; sailed from Termini to Reggio Calabria or Salerno with 200 barrels of tuna 1447

Boat owned by Antonio de Curiali 1447

Ship owned by Michele Valli 1449

Ship owned by Bartholomeo de Spezia of Genoa & Palermo 1468

Ship owned by Nicolo` Mayulinu of Milazzo

Boat owned by  Andrea de Novo, Virardo Iuffre & Antonio de Laudato 1472

800px-Galley-knightshospitaller

Galley of the Knights Hospitaller

MEASURMENTS

SALMA

Must

Wine

Acquata

Wheat

Barley

Salt (from Cammarata)

TUMOLI

Wheat

Barley

KANTAR

Olive Oil (from Ficarra)

Linen

Biscuits (Hardtack)

Cheese

Iron

Honey

Fat (from a slaughterhouse) for making soap

Sweets

Wax

Lumber

Gourds for the storage of a fishing catch

ROTOLI

Biscuits

Fat

Wax

Oil

TERCIAROLI

Tuna

POUNDS

Saffron

BARREL

Tuna

CANNE

Cloth

PALMI

Cloth

QUINTALS

Grapes

CASK

Oil

QUARTARE

Must

Wine

CARRATELLO

Oil

DISTANCE MEASURMENTS

Meters

Palmi

MONETARY SYSTEM

Onze

Tari`

Grana

Ferdinand_Ier_de_Naples

King Ferrante of Naples who welcomed the Jews of Sicily into his kingdom after Ferdinand of Aragon expelled them from Sicily in 1492. Unfortunately, Ferrante died two years later and during the interregnum the French invaded the Kingdom of Naples, forcing the Jews living there to convert to Catholicism. Some of the Sicilian Jews fled to the Ottoman Empire (especially to the town of Salonika), others converted to Catholicism and returned to Sicily.

461px-Map_of_Italy_Regno_di_Napoli.svg

The Kingdom of Naples (orange territories). It was to here that the Jews of Sicily first fled following Ferdinand of Aragon’s Expulsion Decree of 1492.

Salonika

During the era of the Expulsion from Sicily, which began in late 1492, many Sicilian Jews fled to Salonika in the Ottoman Empire. In the 1940s, the Nazis exported and murdered c. 96% of the Jews living in Salonika.

The Two Lists Containing the Family Names of the Jews of Termini Imerese

The first list at the bottom of this page is an intabulation of  the surnames of the Jewish Families found in the 1542-48 Baptismal Records of Termini Imerese whose forbears chose to stay in (or return to) Sicily after King Ferdinand of Aragon’s 1492 Expulsion Decree. In order to reside on the island, each family member (including all slaves: Gypsy, Slavic, Black, and Berber) had to be baptized Catholic, and every household had to hand over 45% of its holdings to the Crown. Many Jewish family members were actually baptized in the Kingdom of Naples where they had originally fled after the decree.

Known as Neofiti, it is certainly possible some of these families did not intermarry with Old Catholics for quite some time. Sicilians of all backgrounds tended to intermarry with cousins for many generations, ironically, a practice similar to that followed by European royalty.

Record 108v c

This baptismal record includes the surnames of at least two children or grandchildren of Neofiti: DiNapoli and Palumbo. It reads: ‘On October 28, 1547, Father Giovanni DiNapoli baptized the son of Bartolo Giuliano DiPiroto. He was named Paulo Pietro. His godfathers are Pietro Pilato and Vincenzo Palumbo. His godmother is Sister Domenica LaGrigola.’ Indeed, the surname DiPiroto might be a Sicilian variant of the common Jewish surname, Shapiro, meaning Speyer, a town in Germany which once had a sizable Jewish community. / Photo courtesy of Father Anthony Delisi.

As elsewhere in Sicily, the Neofiti went on living in Termini as before during the years following 1492, maintaining the same neighborhoods (primarily the Old Quarter near the Palermo Gate, and the Chaltigegne Quarter near the town wall at the Castello) and trying their best not to slip back into performing the rites of their former religion. The latter problem, if discovered, could lead to an appearance at an Auto de Fe in Palermo.

Among the Jewish families who wanted to maintain their ancient religion, many departed Sicily for the port city of Thessaloniki (Salonika) in the Ottoman Empire where they joined hundreds of Sephardim who had left Iberia rather than convert to Catholicism. During World War II, the entirety of the huge Jewish population of Salonika (in modern Greece) was deported; a considerable number died in Auschwitz. Still other Sicilian-Jewish families who decided to leave the island kingdom after 1492, rebuilt their lives in Damascus, Syria, where they established a synagogue alongside of those of the Sephardim, and of the ancient native Jewish population.

The second list below includes the names of Jewish men and women who lived in Termini Imerese during the 1400s before the Expulsion. Their names are preserved in the records kept by 15th-century notaries. The most-prominent among these Jews are marked with an asterisk [*]. Jewish family names on this second list which are also found in the 1542-48 Baptismal Records of San Nicola Bari are presented in bold lettering.

Jewish Surnames 1542 MS

Jewish Surnames in a Baptism of 1542 in Termini Imerese (Isacco Ermanno, Cosentino, and LuSpagnolo): “The priest mentioned in the previous record baptized the son of Geronimo Isacco Ermanno. He was named Francesco. His godfathers are Antonino Cosentino and Bernardo LuSpagnolo. His godmother is Sister Philippa L’Angelica.” Photo courtesy of Father Anthony Delisi.

List No. 1: The surnames of families of Neofiti [New Catholics] living in Termini Imerese as they are found in Codex A (1542-48)

Jewish Surname in Codex A Meaning Exemplar: Title and First Name Date Recorded
Abbate | abbatj root: father [Hebrew] Navarra September 18, 1547
D’Amato | dj amato root: Love Vincenzo April 9, 1545
LuBarbuto | lu barbutu unknown Francesco October 12, 1544
Barone | barunj Baron Antonio April 4, 1546
Bonanno | bona~no Good Year Nicola Antonio July 9, 1542
Calabrese | calabriſi Calabria Francesco October 23, 1546
Campana | canpana unknown Giovanni December 8 , 1544
Castiglia | caſtilgla Castile [Spain] Marino February 2, 1548
Cordoza | corduſu Cordoba [Spain] Mons. Francesco November 30, 1542
Catalano | cattalano Catalan [Spain] Calogero July 29, 1543
Catanese | cataniſi Catania Giovanni November 4, 1543
Gippetto | chippectu unknown Padre Silvestre March 9, 1547
Conti | contj Count Antonino October 4, 1547
Cosentino | cuſintjno Cosenza Matteo May 29, 1542
David King of Judah Bernardo November 11, 1544
D’Adamo | dj adamo son of Adam Giacomo June 9, 1545
D’Angelo | di anchjlu son of Malechai Antonino June 18, 1542
D’Aragona :: dj aragona of Aragon [Spain] Bernardino November 12, 1545
D’India | dj Jndja Merchant of India Simone October 17, 1546
DiBono | dj bonu of Good Giacomo October 14, 1544
DiFerro | di fe~ro Artisan in Iron Padre Pietro May 14, 1542
DiFranco | di fra~cu of France Gilormo October 9, 1543
DiGeraci | dj girachj of Geraci Maistru Francesco February 25, 1545
DiGiudea| dj gudia of Judea Maistro Giovanni April 27, 1547
DiLeone | dj ljunj of Lion [of Judah] Giacomo March 10, 1547
DiMessina | dj mjsſina of Messina Nicolello November 25, 1545
DiMilana | dj mjlana of Milan Ambrosio October 6, 1545
DiMilazzo | dj mjlazu of Milazzo Giacomo April 10, 1546
DiPalermo | di palermu of Palermo Bernardo November 5, 1547
DiPatti | di pactj of Patti Grigoli November 15, 1544
DiPolizzi | dj poljzi of Polizzi Bernardo November 9, 1544
DiPolonia | dj polonja of Poland Francesco August 28, 1546
DiPurpura | dj purpurj of Purple [Dye] Vincenzo November 20, 1545
Di Rubino | dj rubinu son of Rubin Antonino February 10, 1545
DiSimone | dj ſimunj son of Simeon Antonino March 15, 1545
DiTermini | di terminj of Termini Antonino April 8, 1543
DiTrapani | dj trapanj of Trapani Antonio July 19, 1543
DiTripi | dj tri of Tripi, Sicily Gilormo May 21, 1546
DiVita | dj vjta son of Chiam Pompeo August 31, 1544
Granata Granada [Spain] Bernardo September 9, 1543
Greco | grecu Greek Giacomo February 25, 1545
Laurifice | laurjfichi unknown Caspano October 28, 1544
Levizza | levicza Levi Francesco May 19, 1545
LoForte | lo forttj Strong person Pietro June 24, 1545
LuPresti | lu p¯ſtj Cohen Padre Gerardo May 1, 1542
LoSpagnolo | lo spangnolu Spaniard Bernardo October 8, 1542
LuBarberi | lu barberj Barber / Dentist Vito August 9, 1543
Lupo | lupu Wolf Padre Giacomo March 15, 1545
Maggiorca | majorca Majorca [Spain] Matteo September 21, 1542
Navarra Navarra [Spain] Nicola November 16, 1545
d’Orico | dj ojrrigu Goldsmith Magister Aloisio July 11, 1545
Palumbo | palumbu Jonah Giovanne January 29, 1547
Raffaeli | raffaelj Raphael Giacomo May 28, 1545
Romano | romanu of Rome Antonino February 25, 1545
Russo | rusſu Red Hair Monsignore Calistro July 4, 1542
Rustico | ruſtjco Peasant Bartolo March 11, 1546
Salamone | ſalamunj Solomon Domenico July 25, 1542
Sanguigno  | sangujngno Cheerful Bernardo February 22, 1547
Sansone | ſanzunj Samson Bernardo March 26, 1543
Sineni | sjnenj unknown Giovanni Antonio August 2, 1545
Speciale | spicialj Special Geronimo September 21, 1544
Spinola | ſpinula Spaniard Grigoli November 16, 1545
Vecchio | vechu Elder Giovanni March 28, 1548
Saint_Dominic_Presiding_over_an_Auto-da-fe_(1475)

The Neofiti of Termini Imerese lived in constant fear of being arrested by the officials of the Spanish Inquisition for backsliding into their former Jewish customs.

List No. 2: The Names of Jewish Men and Women living in 15th-Century Termini Imerese and Environs

SOURCE: Shlomo Simonsohn. The Jews in Sicily. Volume 16. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

  • Abate (Abati), Bulxayra (Bulxaria) / wife: Xassena 1484-1485
  • Abate, Vita 1482
  • Abenazara (Abenasar /Abinazira),  Iosep [a Catalan Jew; owned a Black female slave: Barca] son: Donato 1438
  • Abenazara, Donato 1438
  • Abini, Xibite [of Polizzi] 1472
  • Abram, Ysac 1481
  • Abuduram, Iosep [of Palermo; in-laws of Master Lazaro Sacerdoto] / wife Garufa 1470
  • Achina, Muxa [candlemaker] 1426
  • Achina, Busacca [of Palermo] 1438
  • Actuni, Busacca [of Palermo] 1427
  • [A]laniseni, David [of Palermo] 1463
  • Allegre (Allegri), Busacca [of Ciminna and Palermo] 1472
  • Alluxi, Muxa [of Caccamo; a vassal of the Count of Modica] 1485
  • Alluxi, Saduno [of Palermo, a stitcher in a tannery in Ciminna] 1471
  • Amar, Benedetto [managed two farms; rented a house in the Chaltigegne quarter of Termini] 1409-1412
  • Amara, Vita [of Termini & Palermo; real estate] 1432-1443
  • Ammara, Iosep [of Palermo; laborer] 1427 
  • Ancarella, Vanni [of Palermo, worked in a sugar refinery] 1426
  • Arami, Gaudio  [of Messina] 1427
  • Aseni, Aron [of Palermo] 1476
  • Assin, Aron 1463
  • Audile, Muxa [of Palermo; dealt in slaves as a middleman: Moorish slave, Giovanni who was baptized] 1465
  • Aurifex, Iosep; alias Malapesa [of Caltavuturo; an attorney; had rent dealings with an Archpriest at San Nicola: Leonardo de Ruzillono] 1417-1430
  • Aurifex, Xibite [of Caltavuturo] 1420
  • Aurifichi, Braxa [of Ciminna] 1471
  • Aurifichi, Minto 1488
  • Aurifichi, Nissim [of Ciminna; owned a tannery-shoes were made there] 1468-1471
  • Aurifichi, Sadia [of Ciminna] 1471- 1472
  • Aurifichi, Xibite [of Ciminna] 1471
  • Averne, Xibiti  1447
  • Azara, Abram 1463
  • Azara, Daniel [of Sciacca; leather worker] / brother: Muxa [leather worker] 1465-1486
  • Azara, Sadia 1464
  • Azara, Xibite [of San Marco] 1430
  • Azari, Salamone  [of Palermo] 1432
  • Azarut, Xibite 1472
  • Axaba, Mordoc alias Chirkellu 1482
  • Azarut, Xibite [of Palermo] / wife: Susa Susi daughter of Braxa Susi 1471
  • Bagnuni, Muxa [of Palermo; a blacksmith] / wife: Perna / 3 sons1412
  • Balbo, Xanguel [of Palermo] 1464
  • Balbu, Akina [of Palermo; husband of Channa Susi whose father was Iacu Susi] 1479
  • Balbu, Nissim [of Trapani; jeweler: ringmaker] 1464
  • Bambalu, Brachono [of Palermo] 1426
  • Banbalo, Brachono [sugar cane plantation worker] 1426
  • Baro, Brachono [iron artisan: nails 1463
  • Barbuto, Leo [of Palermo] / brother Xibite 1419
  • Barbuto, Nixim [a blacksmith] 1408-1409
  • Bati, Graciano [blacksmith] 1445-1448
  • Bati, Salamon [salesman in a Palermo shop] 1467
  • Benassay, Siminto [of Palermo] 1431
  • Biadel, Alesio [a Catalan merchant] 1447
  • Binna, Braxono (Brachono) [of Termini & Bivona & Caccamo; Protonotary of the Jewish Community] 1463-1480
  • Binna, Iacob 1485
  • Binna, Marzuko [of Palermo; had a shop in Palermo] 1431
  • Binna, Muxa [sold hides] 1419-1421
  • Binna, Nixim (Nissim) / cousin: Gauyucio de Binna [loans; real estate] 1439-1444
  • Binna, Xamuel [David Minzi was his guardian] / son of Brachono (died c. 1431) 1431-1442
  • Binna, Xanono [shoemaker] / brother: Iosep 1439-1444
  • Blundo, Braxa [of Messina; owned a shop in Termini] 1484
  • Bonet, Iosep [of Palermo; owned a slave girl named Ximisa as did Iacob Susi] 1485
  • Bono (Bonu), Brachono [of Termini & Caccamo; a blacksmith]1463-1465
  • Bracha (sole name) 1482
  • Bramuno, Iuda [of Palermo; laborer] 1427
  • Bramuno, Iuda [laborer] 1427
  • Briya, Muxutu [of Palermo] 1426
  • Budera, Gaudeo [of Palermo; pharmacist] 1485
  • Bulgido, Natale [of Palermo: had a shop in the Cassaro Quarter] 1426
  • Busac (Busico), Nissim 1441-1442
  • Busac, Xibite 1441
  • Busacca (sole name) 1481
  • Bute, Graciano 1446
  • Caecas, Xibite  [of Palermo] 1448
  • Cafisi, Levi [leather worker] 1472
  • Calabrense, Benedetto [of Termini & Caccamo; laborer] / small son: unnamed 1439-1442
  • Calabrense, David [of Palermo] 1445
  • Calabrense, Xibite 1472
  • Calabrensi, Brachono [of Caccamo] 1420
  • Calabrisi, Daniel [of Palermo] 1468
  • Calabrisi, Mardoc [of Geraci; blacksmith] 1472
  • Calabrisi, Nissim [of Palermo] 1467 
  • Calandrino, Sabeti [of Palermo; laborer] 1427
  • Canchula (Canchila), Aron [of Polizzi] 1464-1471
  • Canchula, Minica [of Polizzi] 1485
  • Canet, Benedetto [of Palermo] 1489
  • Sassuni, Aron [of Nicosia & Caccamo: ritual slaughterer and teacher of the Jewish religion in Caccamo] 1464
  • Chanchula, Gauyu [of Polizzi] 1459
  • Chanchula, Minica [of Polizzi; blacksmith: nail maker] 1485
  • Cathanisi, Abraham 1472
  • Cathanisi (Catanisi), Mardoc (Merdoc) [blacksmith: parts for boats] / brother: Sadono 1463-66
  • Cathanisi, Ximuni [sold sugar cane] 1467 
  • Cathalano, Benedetto [of Palermo] 1445-1468
  • Cathalano, Bracha / wife: Sabatina 1447-1448
  • Cathalano, Mardoc [of Termini & Ciminna; artisan in iron; artisan in leather] 1448 
  • Cathalunu, Vita [of Nicosia] 1448
  • Chabbono (Chabuno), Manuel [of Caltavuturo] 1417-1422
  • Chabon, (?) 1476
  • Chaluffo, Xibite (alias Chancarella) [of Geraci] 1430
  • Chandarello, Iosep [of Palermo living in Caccamo] 1419
  • Chandirello, Vita [of Palermo; in Caccamo; sold shoes] 1418
  • Chandarellu, Nissim [alias Angelu, of Caltanissetta] 1480
  • Chassuni, Aron [had a shop in Nicosia] / brother: Mayo 1463
  • Chappar (Chapar), Muxa [sold cow hides: a tanner] 1485-1489
  • Chayeni, Elia 1412
  • Cortisi, Challuffo (alias Crapa) [shoemaker] 1430-1432
  • Chetibi, Maistru Moyses [of Palermo, living in Termini; physician; real estate] 1430
  • Chetubi, Bonaiuto [of Geraci; appears to have dealt in slaves] 1462
  • Chieti, Braxa 1489
  • Chudiri, Xibite [of Palermo; laborer] 1426-1427
  • Coser, Nissim [of Giuliana] 1463
  • Consintino, Ysafet [of Cammarata and Castronovo; sold iron] 1463
  • (de) Cosintino, Farmono [presbitero; attorney; mule driver?] / wife: Gannula 1411-1413
  • Cosintino, Xibite [of Termini & Palermo] 1409-1426
  • Cusintino, Sabeti / son: Azarono 1427
  • Cusintino, Sadono [attorney] / son: Brachono  [laborers] 1427
  • Cuyno, Galuffo [of Palermo] 1426 NB. Cuyno = Cohen = loPresti
  • Daram, David [of Palermo] 1481
  • Davicholu, Yose [of Castroreale] 1445
  • Denar, Graciano [of Palermo] 1464
  • de Abramo, Manuel [of San Marco] 1419
  • de Alamagna, Iacob [sold oil: type unknown] 1441
  • de Anello, Michele [of Bivona] 1463-1485
  • de Apichella, Gabriel 1473
  • de Aram, Manuel [of Palermo; laborer] 1427
  • de Archina, Muxa [of Palermo; had a shop in Palermo] 1431
  • de Aurifichi, Minto 1489
  • de Barlecta, Angilono [of Caccamo] 1466
  • de Baxilico, Salamon [of San Marco] 1489
  • de Benedetto, Israel 1482
  • de Benedetto, Lia [of Palermo; a shoemaker] 1480
  • de Benedetto, Muxa [of Palermo & Marsala] 1468-1489
  • de Benedetto de Cappecta, Daniel [of San Marco] 1468
  • de Bianchi, Symon [of Palermo; merchant: sold cloth]
  • de Bido, Zullu [laborer] 1438
  • *de Binna, Gauyucio (alias de Bracha) / wife: Archimisa  [protonotary of Jewish Community of Termini; part ownership in a boat, Santo Cristofaro; tuna plant; made loans; real estate; barley; livestock; lumber] 1409-1447
  • (de) Binna, Iosep (Iusep) [worked in leather; dealt in wine; rented out a tavern; paid by the protonotaries of the Jewish Community of Termini Imerese to collect the Gisia, the traditional tax on Jewish Communities (because they were living among Catholics), now a head tax, to be sent to the Crown] / wife: Simecha (died c. 1431) / brother: Xanono / uncle: Gauyucio de Binna  1431- 1448
  • de Binna, Muxa / wife: Marzuka 1419
  • de Binna, Nixim [of Palermo] 1425-1427
  • de Binna, Vita 1419
  • de Binna, Xanono 1441-1444
  • de Birra, Natali [of Palermo; laborer] 1427
  • de Bono, Iacobo (1463)
  • de Bono, Graciano [of Caccamo; possibly a shoemaker or tanner] 1409
  • *de Bracha, Brachono [protonotary of the Jewish Community of Termini Imerese; shoemaker, saddler, tanner; owned land in the Fiume Contrada; made loans]  died c. 1422 / sons: Xinguel, Xibiten / brother: Binna, Muxa / possible brother: Busacca & his wife, Chassuna / sister: Chana / wife: Giuxa  1409-1422
  • de Bracha, Gauyucio 1409
  • de Bracha, Vita [of Palermo; dealt in real estate] 1409
  • de Bracha, Xanono / sons: Muxa, Brachono (died 1422), Xibite/ daughter Channa / wife Contissa 1411
  • de Braya, Gauyucio [an attorney] 1409
  • de Braxuni, Xibite [of Scicli] 1482
  • de Briana, Iacob / wife Stella 1486
  • de Briyatino, Iacob [of Messina] 1481
  • de Butera, Daniel [of Bivona] 1472
  • de Caniso, David [of Sciacca] 1468
  • de Castrogiovanni, Brachuto (Brachutio)1462
  • de Chipriano, David [candlemaker] / father: Master Symon 1426
  • de Cosintino (Cusentino), Farmono [an attorney] 1409
  • de Cusintino (Cosintinu), Nissim [bought 1ron and nails in 1485] 1485
  • de Daniele, Rafaele [of Palermo; had a shop in Palermo] 1431 
  • de Farmuna, Vegnamino [of Palermo; shoemaker] 1426
  • de Farmuni, Brachono [a tanner] 1448
  • de Franco, Gaudio [of San Lucido] 1418
  • de Franza, Xua 1441
  • de Galfimi, Busacca [of Geraci] 1418
  • de Galione, Xalomo [rented a shop in Termini] 1463
  • de Gaudio, Iacob [of Palermo; merchant; livestock: goats] 1426
  • dd
  • e Girachio, Braxa 1463
  • de Girachi, Busacca [of Caccamo] 1463
  • de Gerachi, Mardoc [of Polizzi; shoemaker & tanner] 1440
  • de Geracio, Pietro [of Polizzi] 1418
  • de Gerachio, Sabbatino 1412-1414
  • de Girachi (de Girachio), Ysdrael 1445
  • de Girachio, Abraham [of Geraci; made sacks] 1466 
  • de Girachio, Benedetto [notary] 1476 
  • de Girachio, Parisio [of Caccamo] 1409-1420
  • de Girachio, Ysdrael [of Caccamo] 1418-1445
  • de Giracio, Gabriel 1473
  • de Girgenti, Muxa [of Termini and of Sciacca] 14461463
  • de Girgenti, Xabono 1479
  • de Girgenti, Xibite [alias Chabuni; of Sciacca] 1476-1479
  • de Guglucio, Mussuto [of Palermo; rented several houses in the Plano de li Barlachi] 1485
  • de Iacar, Gauyu 1467 de Iacu, Gauyu [artisan in iron] 1468
  • de la Iudeca, Leone [of Palermo; possibly a candy maker: used a large amount of sugar in his business] 1438
  • de la Iudecca, Simon [of Palermo; a leather worker using deerskins]  1427
  • de Legui, Salamon 1445
  • de Leontini, Xirello [of Siracusa] 1445
  • de Levi, Salamon, 1445
  • de Levi, Xalomo [of Caltabellotta] 1466
  • de Liali, Brachono 1441-1442
  • de Liali, Marino 1475
  • de Liali, Sadono 1448
  • de Liucio, Master Merdoc [blacksmith] 1480
  • de Liuni, Machalufo [of Polizzi & Agrigento] / father: Muxa 1442
  • de Liuni, Salamon 1441
  • de Liuni, Xibite [of Petralia] 1472
  • de Liuzo, David 1484
  • de Liuzu, Mardoc (de Liucio, Merdoc; de Liuzo, Mordocho/Mordocco) [a blacksmith; owned a shoe-making shop; made saddles; a mule driver] /son: Xilomo 1480-1481
  • de Liuzu, Minto [of Palermo] 1479
  • de Liuzu, Xibite [of Palermo] / wife Milicha 1472
  • de lu Liali, Muxa 1472
  • de lu Liali, Sadono [shoemaker and tanner] 1434-1448
  • de lu Medico, Ferrugio [of Palermo] 1426
  • de lu Medico, Muxa [of Palermo] 1448
  • de lu Medicu, Rafael 1489
  • de lu Munte, Mardoc 1481
  • de lu Presti, Jacob [of Caccamo] 1420
  • de lu Riccu, Gauyu 1489
  • de Mactute, Sabutu [of Palermo] 1426
  • de Malta, Xibite [of Polizzi] 1437
  • de Mazara, Iosep [of Sciacca] 1480
  • de Marzucu, Siminto 1447
  • de Mayurana, Rosa / husband: Challufo 1413-1422
  • de Medico, Emanuel 1483
  • de Medico, Leo 1427
  • de Medico, Xua 1468
  • de Medico, Sephen / son: Nixim 1426
  • de Medicu, Muxa [of Palermo] 1448
  • de Messana, Bracha [of Caccamo] 1470
  • de Messana, Iacobo [of Caccamo; shoemaker] / brother: Mazeo 1472- 1485
  • de Messana, Matheo [of Ciminna] 1420
  • *de Messana (de Messina, de Missina), Merdoch (Mardoc / Merdocco)  died c. 1467 [of Trapani; attorney; leather shop; vineyard; wheat & barley warehouse in port area; sold tuna; made loans] / wife: Garufa 1435-1476
  • de Messana, Muxa (Muxano, Muxani) [protonotary of the Jewish Community of Termini Imerese; sold kosher wine; made loans; owned real estate] wife: Fadale 1409-1437
  • de Messana, Muxa [he and his brother cured and packed cheese, and administered the operation for Termini Imerese] brother: Bracha 1483
  • de Messana, Xasseni [of Caccamo] 1485
  • de Messina, Salamon [of Palermo; shoemaker] 1426
  • de Michele, Giovanne 1485
  • de Migleni, Bracha [a blacksmith] 1472
  • de Migleni, Siminto 1446-1447
  • de Migleni, Vita / brother of Siminto  [sold blacksmith tools] 1447
  • de Milieni, Daniel 1484
  • de Milieni, David 1489
  • de Mineo, Iuda [of Palermo] 1409
  • de Minichi, Abraham 1473-1479
  • de Minixi, Busac (Busacca) [a mule driver] / wife Gauyusa /  son: Xibite 1472-1489
  • de Minixi, David [of Palermo] 1426
  • de Minixi, David [died by 1484]1484
  • de Misira, Master Nixim [builder from Palermo] 1418
  • de Misira, Brachono [builder from Palermo] 1413
  • de Missina, Abram / father: Merdoc 1463
  • de Missina, Iacob [of Caccamo] 1489
  • de Missiria, Sufen [0f Palermo] 1426
  • de Mixira, Muxa [of Palermo; possibly a shoemaker or hatmaker] 1437
  • de Mixiruni, Nissim [of Mazara; made saltpeter] 1463
  • de Musetto, Angilono [lived in the Marche; perhaps a soap maker] 1438-1439
  • de Monio, Bucassa [of Palermo] 484
  • de Niyar, Siminto (Minto de Niiar) / wife: Channa de Bracha 1419-1420
  • de Palermo, Master Moyses 1489
  • de Palermo, Sadia [of Agfrigento; bought a Moorish slave named Ali] 1468
  • de Panichello, Brachono [a blacksmith] / mother: Luna / brother: Muxa / niece: Camura 1438-1470
  • *(de) Panichello, Muxa [of Termini & Caccamo; shoemaker &  tanner; owned a tannery near the aqueduct (water conduit); part-owner of a tuna plant; rented a tavern; made loans; owned livestock: herd of 24 cattle]; bees / brother Branchono / mother: Luna 1433-1449
  • de Panichello, Xibite [of Caccamo; possibly a tanner & saddle maker (use of cloth)] 1409-1419
  • de Policio, Braxa 1480
  • de Policio, Busacca (Busac) alias Chumaca  [a blacksmith]  / wife: Perna / daughter: Stella married to Iacob de Briana 1471-1486
  • de Policio, Fariuno 1419
  • de Policio, Muxa 1484
  • de Policio, Sabbatino / father: Muxarello [of Caccamo] 1418-1420
  • de Policio, Siminto 1489 
  • de Policio alias Munulini , Xibete(n) (Xibitucio) 1480-1489
  • de Ragusa, Gauyu 14631468 
  • de Rindillario, Gallucio [of Palermo] 1422 
  • de Rindellario, Xanono 1441-1445
  • de Romanu (de Romano), Master Sabato [a physician] / wife: Raxila 1482-1485
  • de Sala, Xamuele [of Palermo] 1432
  • de Salamuni, Benedetto [of Caccamo] 1409
  • de Samuele, Gauyu 1489
  • de Samuele, Perna / father: Iosep Sivuni  / widow of Minexa de Samuele alias Emanuele 1488
  • de Samuele, Master Robino (Rubino) / son: Emanuel 1485-1489
  • de San Marco, Xibite [of Polizzi; blacksmith: nail maker] 1485
  • de Sancto Marco, Vita [of Polizzi] 1468
  • de Sidica, Lia [formerly living in Palermo but from Monte San Giuliano; shoemaker and tanner] 1437
  • de Simuni, Iosep [collected oil taxes; Protonotary of the Jewish Community; managed a (leather) shop in Caccamo] 1468-1482
  • de Seracusia [of Palermo] 1427
  • de Seregusia, Iacob 1479
  • de Seragusa, Iacob [of Giuliana; a farmer] 1481
  • de Seragusa, Muxa [a tanner] 1479
  • de Siracusa, Iacu [a leather worker, perhaps a shoemaker] 1472-1476
  • de Sivuni, Sabato 1478
  • de Spagnolo, Xibite [sold sweets] 1466
  • de Syracusia, Busacca [of Palermo] 1427
  • de Syracusia, Muxa [of Palermo] 1426
  • de Termini, Abraham [of Palermo] 1480
  • de Termini, Muxa [of Polizzi; iron worker] 1422
  • de Termi, Busac [worked on the sugar plantation on the Bracato Feudal Estate] 1471
  • de Termi, Xibite [of Polizzi; a blacksmith] 1489
  • de Tribuli, Tubia [of Ciminna] 1472
  • de Tripi, Matheo [of Siracusa] 1445 NB: The de Tripi family name is found 7 times in the Termini Baptismal Records of 1542-48.
  • de Tudisco, Iacob 1441
  • de Vechu, Nicolo` [ritual slaughterer at his abattoir] 1482
  • de Vita, Xibite 1417
  • de Xacca alias Castagnella, Yuda [of Palermo] 1479
  • de Xassa, ( ) [of Polizzi] 1463
  • de Xillufo, Simon 1449 
  • de Yskillachio, Vegnamino [of Caccamo] 1430
  • Dinar, Graciano [of Palermo] 1464
  • Drabu, Chayruni [of Sciacca] 1462
  • Farachi, Ysdraele [of Palermo] 1427 
  • Farmuni, Nissim [of Caccamo & Termini & Palermo] / brother: Xanon 1463-1479
  • Farmuni, Xanino 1464
  • Ficaro, Braxono [of Palermo] 1488
  • Fitira, Muxa [of Polizzi] 1482
  • Formica, Salamon [of Termini & Polizzi; owned a male slave named Xasen Mauro]/ wife: Stera 1483-1489
  • Furruneri, Nissim [of Caccamo] 1466
  • Galfimi, Busacca 1418
  • Galiuni, Xibite 1465
  • Galiono, Xalomo 1463
  • Gapp___, David 1463
  • Gasseni, Aron [of Palermo] 1468
  • Gasseni, Master Moyse  [of Palermo] / son: Salamon (studied abroad) married Pace, daughter of Master Lazaro Sacerdoto c. 1487
  • Gibili, Machalufo [of Polizzi] 1418
  • Grasseni, Xalo 1447
  • Grecu, Merdoch [of Catania] / brother Sabet 1426
  • Grixuni, Avineri [of Caccamo] 1485
  • Iacar, Israel [artisan in iron] 1476-1484
  • Iacob, Nachu [of San Marco] 1432
  • Iacusi, Mathathia [a notary: Talmudic Law; of Palermo] 1470
  • Impernatu, Mordoc [of Caccamo; shoemaker] 1463
  • Infaro, Muxa 1445
  • Inbonet, Iosep [of Palermo] 1484
  • Inpernatu, Benedetto 1469
  • Inpernatu, Mordoc  1464
  • Isac, Muxa 1472
  • Isac, Saya [of Palermo] 1448
  • Lazara, Sadia 1463
  • Legui, Brachono [of Corleone] / wife: Musuta 1467
  • Levi, David [of Sciacca; leather worker] 1485
  • Levi, Iosep [of Polizzi and Caltavuturo] 1484-1485
  • Liuzo, Mardoc (Mordoc) 1478-1483
  • Liuzu, Xibite / wife Milicha Susi, daughter of Iacu Susi
  • lu Aurifichi, Iacu [of Geraci] 1442
  • lu Ferraru, Mardocco [of Polizzi] 1459
  • lu Liali, Iosep 1478-1482 / wife: Gracia 1481
  • lu Liali, Marino (Marinu) 1472-1480
  • lu Liali, Mayo [a blacksmith] 1480-1489
  • lu Liali, Minache [of Polizzi] 1473
  • lu Liali, Muxa [a leather worker; leased a tannery in 1479] / wife: Gauyusa (Gaudiosa)/ brothers: Mayo, Iosep 1472-1489
  • lu Liali, Nissim [of Geraci; a shoemaker] 1480
  • lu Liali, Sadono [shoemaker & tanner; may have made soap from the fat that he ordered from a slaughterhouse] / son: Iosep 1431-1448
  • lu Liali, Salamon 1472-1478
  • lu Liali, Vita [of Castelbuono] 1480
  • lu Liali, Xibiten 146(5)
  • lu Medicu, Emanuel (Manuel) [of Termini & Palermo; a pharmacist; rope maker] 1482-1488
  • lu Riccu, Gauyu [of Nicosia] 1489
  • Mactuti, Master Sabuti [surgeon; a protonotary of the Jewish Community of Palermo] 1432
  • Magaseni, Salamon [of Palermo] 1468
  • Malki, Sadia [of Palermo] 1480
  • Malkrum, Manuel 1426
  • Maltense, Angilono [protonotary & treasurer of Jewish Community of Termini; wrote documents in Hebrew] / wife: Gunnula (a widow by 1447) 1419-1421
  • Maltense, Gaudio [owned a tallow business] 1476
  • Maltense, Iacob /son: Pascale [of Palermo; laborer] 1427
  • Maltense, Iosep [of Polizzi; owned a slave girl: Axenora] 1438
  • Maltense, Master Leone [physician of Polizzi; procurator for Count Giovanni de Vintimilio] 1422
    • Giovanni I Ventimiglia (1382–1475), eighth count of Geraci; Praetor of Palermo: 1416 and 1417, Grande Ammiraglio del Regno (Grand Admiral of the Kingdom), Viceré di Sicilia, (Viceroy of Sicily), 1430–1432, 1438.
  • Maltense, Muxa 1420-1422
  • Maltense, Xaguel / wife: Rachyla Spagnolu  / son: Angilono / her brother: Manuel 1412-31
  • *Maltense (Maltensi), Xibite (Xibiten) [of Termini & Trapani; part ownership in a boat Santo Cristofaro; warehouse in port area-bought in 1445; part owner of a tuna plant in Termini: Xilandro; dealt in livestock: goats, cattle, horses; myrtle; barley; shoes, tuna, iron, oil, coal, real estate; owned vinyard, made loans] 1411-1447
  • Maltensi, Xinguel  [presbitero] 1411-1414, died c. 1422
  • Malti, Chayrono  [of Palermo] 1426
  • Malti, Nissim [of Palermo] 1480
  • Maltisi, Busacca [of Termini & Polizzi] 1464-1480
  • Maltisi, Gauyu [of Termini and Polizzi; acted for the Jewish community of Polizzi] 1464
  • Maltisi, Mayo 1464
  • Maniavacca, Sabatino [of Palermo; ‘fireman’ in sugar factory] 1426
  • Market, Sudu [of Palermo; laborer] 1427
  • Marsali, Bati 1448
  • Marsali, Nissim 1447-1448
  • Marzucu, Xibite (Marzuc, Sabeti) 1447-1481
  • Mazarisi, David [teamster] 1445-1449
  • Mazoccu, Iacu [of Bivona] 1480
  • Mechedui, Sabati 1412
  • Medui, Sabut / brother: Muxa [both worked in sugar refinery stacking wood] 1426
  • Medui, Ysdrael [of Palermo] 1426
  • Meme, Gallufo 1459
  • Menine, Vita [of Palermo; worked in a sugar cane plant] 1426
  • Messanese, David [of Siracusa; shoe-maker and tanner] 1436
  • Michilla, Farrugiu [of Agrigento] 1447
  • Migleni, Bracha (Braxa)  [artisan in iron] / son: Salamon: 1470
  • Migleni, Daniel [of Termini & Polizzi; artisan in iron] 1472-1476
  • Migleni, Lia [sugar cane plantation worker] 1426
  • Migleni, Muxa [of Palermo] 1468-1471
  • Migleni, Salamon [of Polizzi] 1483
  • Migleni, Vita / brother: Siminto 1447
  • Milieni, David [of Polizzi; a blacksmith] / brother: Braxa 1479
  • Milieni (Millini), Braxa / son: Salamon 1489
  • Milieni, Nissim [of Caccamo] 1480
  • Milimi, Xibite [of Polizzi; shoemaker] 1440
  • Minache, Xibite [sugar cane plantation worker] 1426
  • Minexe, Muxa [of Palermo] wife: Tuta  / children: Muxa and Rosa 1485
  • Minichi, Abraham [a blacksmith] 1468
  • *(de)Minichi (Minnixi), Merdocho (Merdoc / Merdoch) [a saddler & mule driver]; died.  c. 1430 / wife: Garufa / partner: Vegnamino [mule driver] 1413-1430
  • Minixi, Israel [of Caccamo, a saddler] 1466
  • Minnixi, Vita [of Caccamo] 1420
  • Mindil, Challuffu [of Palermo, in Caccamo] 1420
  • Minisi, Abraham [of Catania, blacksmith at Cefalu`] 1468
  • Minzi (Minzil), Bracha (Braxa) brother (or son) of David [owned a Sefer Torah; owned a slave] 1470-1480
  • *Minzi (Minci / Minzili / Minczi), David [of Termini & Polizzi; hardware (nails), real estate, cloth, tuna, sesame, barley] owned a boat which plied the waters between Termini and Palermo transporting goods] / wife: Perna / sons: Bracha, Xibite, Musuto 1414-37
  • *Minzi, Musutu (Musuto/Muxutu) son of David [an attorney; owned ships, owned cattle; made loans; sold spices (sesame), salt, wheat, barley; tuna; linen, wool; barrels, gourds; bought a warehouse on Termini shore in 1445; owned a feudal estate in Prizzi: De Li Faguacocti] / mother: Perna 1438-1460
  • Minzi, Muxa [owned a tuna plant]  sons: Emanuel, Iona / brothers: Busac and Bracha 1472-1488
  • Minzi (Minzil, Minzili), Xibite / brothers: Busac and David 1475-1484
  • Minzil, Muxa  alias lu Vechuzzu 1464
  • Misiria, Nixim [of Bivona] 1412
  • Misiria, Sufen [of Palermo; sugar cane plantation worker] 1426
  • Munxil (Minzil), Braxa 1480
  • Musunutu, Sola [of Siracusa] brother: Elias 1482
  • Maxunu, Tami 1479
  • Nachuay, Gimilono 1449
  • Naumanu (Neumanu), Salamon 1478-1489
  • Naxagui (Naxaguay), Gimilono [of Palermo] 1463-1464
  • Nifusi, Vita [rope maker] 1488
  • Nifusu, Xaguel [of Castronovo] 1444
  • Nigiar, David / brother Xanono [executors of a will] 1431
  • Niiar, Syminto / wife: Channa, daughter of Xanono de Bracha 1411
  • Niiar, Xanono [of Palermo; blacksmith] 1445
  • Ninna, Sabeti [of Palermo] 1426
  • Nisar, Xangueli 1445
  • Nizar, L. [of Ciminna] 1437
  • Nizar, Xanono [of Cefalu`; perhaps he was a blacksmith] 1446
  • Pardu (Pardo), Abram [of Ciminna] 1471
  • Panichello, Braxono [a blacksmith] 1464
  • Panichello, David [dead by 1432]
  • Panichello, Nixim [cousin of Muxa de Panicello] 1438
  • Penacas, Lia [of Polizzi; paid to cover the walls of the Church of Santa Maria della Miseracordia in Termini] 1449
  • Pixi, Nicolo` [Judge of the Jews of Termini Imerese; a notary] 1476
  • Provenzano, Rafael [of Cimmina] / son: Busacca 1471
  • Provenzanu, Farianu [of Sciacca] 1483
  • Provenzanu, Siminto [owned real estate] 1446
  • Provenzanu, Xalo [of Venice; in Termini as a procurer of tuna]  1469
  • Pulci, Xanono [of Palermo] 1427
  • Rabi, Emanuel [of Cammarata] 1471
  • Rabi, Mardoc [of Cammarata] 1471
  • Rabibi, Abraham [of Palermo] 1464
  • Rabibi, Brachono (Braxono) 1463-1489
  • Rabibi, Emanuel / wife: Ricca 1481-1482
  • Rabibi, Gabriel 1480-1485
  • Rababi, Mardoc 1471
  • Rabibi, Minache 1476
  • Rabibi, Muxexi [of Caccamo; acted for the Jewish Community of Caccamo] 1463-1464
  • Rabibi, Salamon [managed a shop in Caccamo] 1475
  • Rafaeli, Muxa [of Petralia] 1472
  • Raxid, Gabriel 1445
  • Raxid, Raffael [a master saddler] 1447-1448
  • Raxidi, Brachono 1445
  • Raxidi, Busac 1437
  • Raxidi, Rubeo died by 1445
  • Raxith, Muxa 1465
  • Rabibi, Brachono 1466
  • Ribibi, Gaudeo (Gaudio) [of Caccamo] 1464
  • Ribibi, Gauyu [of Caccamo] 1463
  • Ribibi, Muxexi [of Caccamo] / brother: Gudeo 1463-64
  • Rindelaru (Rindillaru), Xanono 1479
  • Rixitri, Gaudio [of Polizzi] 1432
  • Romano (Romanu), Minto 1448
  • Romano, Salamon 1485
  • Romano, Xibite(n) 1464-1465
  • Romanu, Sabato [of Palermo] 1481
  • Romanu, Vita [of Palermo; a blacksmith] 1484
  • Romexi, Sabet [of Giuliana] 1479
  • Rubini, Salamon [of Caccamo] / son: Muxeno 1446
  • Rugil, Muxa [of Palermo; laborer] 1427
  • Russo, Muxa  [of Polizzi] 1480-1481
  • Russo, Xibite(n) [of Polizzi] 1464-1468
  • Russu, Gauyo 1478
  • Russu, Iosep / wife: Xanina 1489 
  • Russu, Rafael [of Nicosia, a broker: sold a black slave to Bando de Anna] 1480
  • Russu (Russo), Sadono [of Palermo, cowherd foreman] 1419-1426
  • Rustico, Chayrono (Chayuni) [worked in the Brucato sugar refinery; and a tuna plant in Termini] / wife: Luna 1459-1475
  • Rustico, Azara [of Palermo; worked in the San Nicola sugar refinery in Termini] /wife: Channa 1467
  • Ruxid, Muxa 1464
  • Sabatino, Busac [of Palermo] 1427 
  • Sabatino, Siminto [pf Palermo] 1467
  • Sacerdato, Iacu 1468
  • Sacerdoto,  Benedetto / brothers: Ysdrael, Vita 1422-1425
  • Sacerdoto, Busacca  [owned an orchard] 1484
  • Sacerdoto, Master Elimelec (Helymelech) [physician and surgeon; sold his black slave girl to Atardo Spatulu of Noto] 1437-1449
  • *Sacerdoto, Master Lazaro [physician; sold cloth imported from foreign markets including London; made loans; dealt in real estate; owned land in the Madonna Diana sector of Termini; supplied the town of Termini with oil; collected town taxes on bread; owned a tuna processing plant, rented out an inn in 1459] / 1st wife: Perna; (1463); 2nd wife: Gemula / daughter: Pace married to Salamon Gasseni / in-laws: Iosep and Garufa Abuduram 1449-1489
  • Sacerdoto, Melex / father: Master Lazaro 1484
  • Sacerdoto, Muxa [of San Marco] 1483
  • Sacerdoto, Paquale [of Palermo] 1442
  • Sacerdoto, Salamon [worked on the sugar plantation in the Bracato feudal estate] 1471
  • Sacerdoto (Sacerdotu), Vita [contractor; made loans] 1419-died c. 1425
  • Sacerdoto, Ysdrael [living in Seminara]  / brother: Vita 1425
  • Sacerdotu [of Geraci], Xibite 1481
  • Sadia, Azaruni [of Caccamo] 1413
  • Saduni, Nissim [of Termini and Caccamo] 1464
  • Safir, Abram [of Palermo] 1464
  • Samar, Salamon / brother, Xibite [of Palermo] 1426
  • Samuele (Samueli), Master Robino 1485
  • Sano, Iacob [of Palermo] 1464
  • Sanson, Xinguel [of Termini & Corleone; shoemaker and tanner] 1438
  • Sansone (Sansono, de Sansono, Sansuni), Sabuto [cultivated a vineyard] 1414-1421
  • Sansuni, Nissim [blacksmith in Cefalu`] / son: Gallufo 1464-1480
  • Sansuni, Master Sabuto 1414
  • Saya, Sadia [of Palermo] 1437
  • Saragusano, Nissim
  • Sarratano, Galluffo [of Palermo; laborer] 1427 
  • Seragusia, Bonetto [of Palermo; laborer] 1427
  • Servideu, Muxa [of San Marco] 1483
  • Sichiri, Iosep 1485
  • Sikiri, Gauyo [a ‘privileged person’ of Polizzi, therefore he was exempt from sequester] 1480
  • Sikiri (Sichiri, Sichira), Iacu (Iacopo, Iacop, Iacob) 1479-1489
  • Sikiri, Muxa 1480
  • Sillac, Merdoc [of Palermo] 1427
  • Simuni, Iosep [dealt in leather] 1466-1475
  • Siracusa, Iacob [of Giuliana] 1484
  • Siva, Xanni [of Palermo] 1484
  • Sivuni, Emmanuel 1484
  • Sivuni (Siveni), Iosep 1478-1485
  • Sivuni, Manuel 1481-1485
  • Sofe, Matheo [of Catania; barrel filler, salter, packer in Termini plant] 1466-1480
  • Spagnolo, Iacu [a weaver by trade: bedspreads] 1469-1475
  • Spagnolo, Manuel [owned a storehouse; dealt in salt; real estate] 1431-1439
  • Spagnolo, Salamon [of Polizzi] 1409 
  • Spagnolo, Xibite(n) [sold oil, and tallow; made iron nails] / son of Manuel 1459-1472
  • Spagnolu, Emmanuel (Emanuele) / father: Xibite 1484
  • Spagnulu, Xibite [of Polizzi] 1447 -1484
  • Spagnolu, Rachyla  / brother: Manuel 1412-31
  • Speciali, Giovanni 1466 Susi, Bengeno 1489
  • Susi, Abraham 1479
  • Susi, Bengeno 1489
  • Susi, Busacca [of Ciminna] 1471-q1472
  • Susi, Braxa  (Braxanello) [of Palermo] /  daughter: Susa 1471-1485
  • Susi, Iacob [of Caccamo; owned a slave girl named Ximisa as did Iosep Bonet] 1445-1485
  • *Susi, Iacu (Iaco)[an attorney; sold cloth / made cheese / dealt in real estate/ made loans / 1466-68: collected city taxes in Termini on oil, candles, sardines, and tuna & on bread; sold cheese & cloth; dealt in wheat & barley, sardines, tuna, hides, owned a Black Slave: Saytalla]  daughters: Channa married to Akina Balbu of Palermo, Milicha married to Xibite de Liuzu of Palermo / son: Mordachai 1463-1480
  • Susi (Sosi), Iosep (Iusep) [a saddler; 1471: collected the town taxes on saddles for the Crown] brother of Muxa 1466-1480
  • Susi, Manuel [of Messina; sold coral] 1468
  • Susi, Mordachai 1472-1475
  • Susi, Muxa [Protonotary of the Jewish Community; a saddler; owned a shop in the S. Caterina District which he rented out] / father: Xibite / mother: Disiata / brother of Iosep / uncle: Iacu Susi  / wife: Stera  / son: Braxa 1463-1489
  • Susi, Raffael [a tax collector] / son: Muxa, an attorney 1438-1448
  • *Susi, Xibitem [died c. 1484; Protonotary of Jewish Community; sold horses & mules; owned a tallow business; owned a shoe-making shop; owned a warehouse] / father: Rafael / wife: Disiata / son: Muxa / wife No. 2 Assisa / children: No. 2  Busacca, Xibite, Bona 1463-1485
  • Susi, Rafael 1459
  • Suyanni, Iosep [Protonotary of the Jewish Community of Termini] 1472
  • *Taguil, Brachono [of Palermo; real estate;  Lieutenant of the Secreto of Termini; Procurator of the Governor of Termini, Antonio Olzina, a knight 1439; Procurator of the Secreto of Termini; part owner of tuna plants in Termini and in Cefalu`; owned wheat warehouse in port area; dealt in biscuits, i. e. hardtack; owned a male Moorish slave: Alya; owned a white slave: Sait, bought in 1436. / brother: Galluffo, an attorney 1437-1440.
  • Taguil, Chayrono [of Palermo; dealt in silk] 1426
  • Taguil, Iosep [of Polizzi] 1449
  • Taguil, Muxa [of Polizzi & Randazzo; owned a wheat farm in Randazzo; died c. 1430] / son, Gauyucio 1417-1430
  • Talbi, Benedetto [of Agrigento] worked in Trabia sugar refinery 1466
  • Talbi, Bonamico [of Polizzi] 1480
  • Talbi, Iosep [blacksmith] / wife: Bullara / son: Xibite 1430
  • Taurmina, Ysrael 1470
  • Terranova, Iacob [of Castrogiovanni] 1485
  • Tivisi, Pax (Pace) [of Geraci; shoe maker] father: Xibite / has a married daughter 1437
  • Trapanese, Xinguel [sugar cane plantation worker] 1426
  • Travu, Xairono [of Corleone] 1481-1482
  • Tudisco, Iacob 1440-1441
  • Tudiscu, David 1440-1442
  • Tunisino, Iacob [of Palermo] 1426
  • Vechu, Busac (Busacca) [artisan in iron; worked at Master Lazaro Sacerdoto’s tuna processing plant]  1464-1472
  • Vechu, Iosep (Iusep) [artisan in iron: parts for boats; laborer] 1438-1466
  • Vecho (Vechu), Gaudio [fish cutter at the Lu Xilandru plant in Termini] 1448-1449
  • Vignuni, Xibite [of Palermo] 1426 
  • Viridi, Xibiten [of Palermo] / father: Salamon 1426-1437
  • Vitti, Sadono [of Cammarata] / father: Iosep 1431
  • Xalamo, Simon [of Palermo; blacksmith] 1426
  • Xalom, Gabriel [rope maker] 1488
  • *Xamar, Benedetto [Cantor: Termini Synagogue; real estate; traded in assorted goods (cloth); made loans; managed small farm in the Contrada Fiume; bought a home from Andrea de Termis, the Prior of the Monastery of S. Maria de Burgitabus] / wife: Nexa 1409-1448
  • Xamar, Benedetto [of Palermo] 1430
  • Xamar, Benedetto 1485
  • Xamar, Bracha 1480
  • Xamar, Musuto [fisherman: foreman for Lu Xilandru tuna plant] 1449
  • Xamar, Xibite [sugar cane plantation worker] 1426
  • Xandarellu, Gimilono  [of Bivona ] 1479
  • Xandarellu, Muxa  [of Ciminna] 1472
  • Xandarellu, Nissim [of Palermo; owned a shop there] 1471
  • Xanina, Emanuel 1449
  • Xaninello, Xaym alias Vita [of Sciacca] 1485
  • Xanunu, David [of Ciminna] 1481
  • Xappinu, David 1465
  • Xaseni, Minto [of Palermo] 1484
  • Xaul, Rubino [of Ciminna] 1471-1472
  • Xineni, Daniel [of Trapani] 1426
  • Xufi, Vanni [of Palermo] 1420
  • Xanina, Manuel [provided salt and barrels to the Lu Xilandru tuna plant] 1449
  • Xayeni, Iosep [of Palermo] 1483
  • Xifuni, Abram [of Palermo] 1464
  • Xunina, Iacob [of Palermo] / brother: Brachuni 1427
  • Yaccar, Gauyu 1463
  • Yaskectu, Nissim [of Palkermo] 1481
  • Ysac, Busac [of Palermo; real estate; died c. 1432
  • Ysac, Nissim 1442
  • Ysac, Sadia [of Palermo] 1430
  • Yskillachio, Vegnamino 1430
  • Zafarana, Salamon [of Palermo] 1426
Published on July 26, 2009 at 3:10 pm  Comments (19)  

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19 CommentsLeave a comment

  1. Hello:
    I came across your website and I am not surprised at the Jewish origin of my fathers family Gerace. I recently went through of Series of Genetic testing which showed that I am in Haplo Group G which has many matches of Jews who migrated from the Georgian Caucasus Region, Turkey, Iran & Iraq. Is it possible you can provide for me more information on the Geraci Jewish surname. I am planning a trip to Sicily this summer with my family? I am looking forward to continue find out more information on my ancient family.

    Best Regards,
    Anthony Gerace

  2. my maiden name was Lia. recently i was told that it is Jewish. is it true? and if so can you please give me some information about this surname.

    thanks and regards

    • Infect I used to think that Lia is Italian. Do you still find this surname in your community now a days? I would love to have more information please.

  3. Ca you tell me if my name may derive from jewish roots?

  4. This is an amazing site! I can’t wait to visit here. Many of our relatives still live in Termini Imerese.

  5. My father’s side of the family is from Termini Imerese, Di Cola was his last name. I was also born in Termini, I immigrated to New York at age 5. I wonder if that name has any history or if it comes from any particular heritage?

    • My Great-great Grandmother was Santa Sarah DiCola. She married Agostino Cantanzaro. Their daughter (Maria) married Agostino Giovenco who was my Great Grandfather. The emigrated from Termini Imerese to Chicago. I’m researching information about my family. I traced back that my Great-great-great-great Grandfather Filippo DiCola married Vincenza Purpura which seems to have a Jewish connection.

  6. Hi! Wow what an awesome find, amazing job on the site. I’m astounded to see the name Sansone listed as a Jewish

  7. Hi! Wow what an awesome find, amazing job on the site. I’m astounded to see the name Sansone listed as Jewish! My great grandparents are Andrea (Andrew) Sansone and Angela Palmisano. They came to America in the early 20th century, and had 8 children. Any advice on how I might find more information about their lives and family in Termini ? Great Grandma Angela’s two brothers were supposedly in the Roman Catholic Church, one a cardinal and the other a Bushop. Any information would be greatly appreciated!

    Thank You so much,
    Maureen

    • Maureen, I’m heading to Sicily this September and will let you know if I find anything interesting. When our daughter visited Verona 8 years ago the people she stayed with told her that her mother’s maiden name (my maiden name) Sansone is Ebrei (Jewish)…an Italian Jewish name meaning Samson. (Sansone e Dalila is the translation)

      • Oh how fantastic!! I’m sure you’ll have a wonderful time. I hope to make it there one day myself, it’s hard to find any information here in the states. Can’t wait to hear what you find!

  8. Impressive resource you have here! Well done

    Shalom!

    Ray de Bono
    Malta

  9. This is a great website is very good.I have blood lines to Salmone and Sansone. I will check my ancestry on this.

  10. My family name is Sansone. Frank Sansone and parents immigrated from termini imerese in either late 1800’s or very early 1900’s and his brothers were both bishops and stayed behind. I wonder if there’s a relation to Sansone (Sansono, de Sansono, Sansuni), Sabuto [cultivated a vineyard] 1414-1421or Bernardo Sansone from mid 1500’s!!

  11. Sir/Madam,

    I am glad to inform you that I appreciate to read your website. I carry out researches about my family which is Salamone (nowadays Salomon) from Sicily. My ancertors left Sicily to France precisely in Ardèche. There is an interesting reference untittled Shlomoh, storia di un nome giunto en un ‘isola lontana from Pasquale Salamone. I note that the autor means cities where members of my family were born (ex: Marcols – 07).

    In your opinion my family was jewish?

    Do not hesitate to contact me for more details.

    I look forward to hearing from you soon.

    Faithfully yours,

    E.G

    • I am also looking for my Salamone roots. Have always been convinced the name had Jewish roots. I have only been able to go back to 1730 Petralia Soprana and then to Valguarnera Caropepe.
      I would never have been able to read the baptismal record above
      showing the name Salamone. Where do I go from here?

  12. Dear Sir/Madam,

    Following my anterior email I forget to tell you an important element which is that my family comes from Termini.

    Best regards,

    E.G


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